COUNTING POS TAGS

We have discussed various pos_tag in the previous section. In this particular tutorial, you will study how to count these tags. Counting tags are crucial for text classification as well as preparing the features for the Natural language-based operations. I will be discussing with you the approach which guru99 followed while preparing code along with a discussion of output. Hope this will help you.

How to count Tags:

Here first we will write working code and then we will write different steps to explain the code.

from collections import Counter
import nltk
text = " Guru99 is one of the best sites to learn WEB, SAP, Ethical Hacking and much more online."
lower_case = text.lower()
tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(lower_case)
tags = nltk.pos_tag(tokens)
counts = Counter( tag for word,  tag in tags)
print(counts)

Output:

Counter({'NN': 5, ',': 2, 'TO': 1, 'CC': 1, 'VBZ': 1, 'NNS': 1, 'CD': 1, '.': 1, 'DT': 1, 'JJS': 1, 'JJ': 1, 'JJR': 1, 'IN': 1, 'VB': 1, 'RB': 1})

Elaboration of the code

  1. To count the tags, you can use the package Counter from the collection's module. A counter is a dictionary subclass which works on the principle of key-value operation. It is an unordered collection where elements are stored as a dictionary key while the count is their value.
  2. Import nltk which contains modules to tokenize the text.
  3. Write the text whose pos_tag you want to count.
  4. Some words are in upper case and some in lower case, so it is appropriate to transform all the words in the lower case before applying tokenization.
  5. Pass the words through word_tokenize from nltk.
  6. Calculate the pos_tag of each token
    Output = [('guru99', 'NN'), ('is', 'VBZ'), ('one', 'CD'), ('of', 'IN'), ('the', 'DT'), ('best', 'JJS'), ('site', 'NN'), ('to', 'TO'), ('learn', 'VB'), ('web', 'NN'), (',', ','), ('sap', 'NN'), (',', ','), ('ethical', 'JJ'), ('hacking', 'NN'), ('and', 'CC'), ('much', 'RB'), ('more', 'JJR'), ('online', 'JJ')]					
  7. Now comes the role of dictionary counter. We have imported in the code line 1. Words are the key and tags are the value and counter will count each tag total count present in the text.

Frequency Distribution

Frequency Distribution is referred to as the number of times an outcome of an experiment occurs. It is used to find the frequency of each word occurring in a document. It uses FreqDistclass and defined by the nltk.probabilty module.

A frequency distribution is usually created by counting the samples of repeatedly running the experiment. The no of counts is incremented by one, each time. E.g.

freq_dist = FreqDist()

for the token in the document:

freq_dist.inc(token.type())

For any word, we can check how many times it occurred in a particular document. E.g.

  1. Count Method: freq_dist.count('and')This expression returns the value of the number of times 'and' occurred. It is called the count method.
  2. Frequency Method: freq_dist.freq('and')This the expression returns frequency of a given sample.

We will write a small program and will explain its working in detail. We will write some text and will calculate the frequency distribution of each word in the text.

import nltk
a = "Guru99 is the site where you can find the best tutorials for Software Testing     Tutorial, SAP Course for Beginners. Java Tutorial for Beginners and much more. Please     visit the site guru99.com and much more."
words = nltk.tokenize.word_tokenize(a)
fd = nltk.FreqDist(words)
fd.plot()

Explanation of code:

  1. Import nltk module.
  2. Write the text whose word distribution you need to find.
  3. Tokenize each word in the text which is served as input to FreqDist module of the nltk.
  4. Apply each word to nlk.FreqDist in the form of a list
  5. Plot the words in the graph using plot()

Please visualize the graph for a better understanding of the text written

Frequency distribution of each word in the graph

NOTE: You need to have matplotlib installed to see the above graph

Observe the graph above. It corresponds to counting the occurrence of each word in the text. It helps in the study of text and further in implementing text-based sentimental analysis. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that nltk has a module for counting the occurrence of each word in the text which helps in preparing the stats of natural language features. It plays a significant role in finding the keywords in the text. You can also extract the text from the pdf using libraries like extract, PyPDF2 and feed the text to nlk.FreqDist.

The key term is "tokenize." After tokenizing, it checks for each word in a given paragraph or text document to determine that number of times it occurred. You do not need the NLTK toolkit for this. You can also do it with your own python programming skills. NLTK toolkit only provides a ready-to-use code for the various operations.

Counting each word may not be much useful. Instead one should focus on collocation and bigrams which deals with a lot of words in a pair. These pairs identify useful keywords to better natural language features which can be fed to the machine. Please look below for their details.

Collocations: Bigrams and Trigrams

What is Collocations?

Collocations are the pairs of words occurring together many times in a document. It is calculated by the number of those pair occurring together to the overall word count of the document.

Consider electromagnetic spectrum with words like ultraviolet rays, infrared rays.

The words ultraviolet and rays are not used individually and hence can be treated as Collocation. Another example is the CT Scan. We don't say CT and Scan separately, and hence they are also treated as collocation.

We can say that finding collocations requires calculating the frequencies of words and their appearance in the context of other words. These specific collections of words require filtering to retain useful content terms. Each gram of words may then be scored according to some association measure, to determine the relative likelihood of each Ingram being a collocation.

Collocation can be categorized into two types-

  • Bigrams combination of two words
  • Trigramscombinationof three words

Bigrams and Trigrams provide more meaningful and useful features for the feature extraction stage. These are especially useful in text-based sentimental analysis.

Bigrams Example Code

import nltk

text = "Guru99 is a totally new kind of learning experience."
Tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(text)
output = list(nltk.bigrams(Tokens))
print(output)

Output

[('Guru99', 'is'), ('is', 'totally'), ('totally', 'new'), ('new', 'kind'), ('kind', 'of'), ('of', 'learning'), ('learning', 'experience'), ('experience', '.')]

Trigrams Example Code

Sometimes it becomes important to see a pair of three words in the sentence for statistical analysis and frequency count. This again plays a crucial role in forming NLP (natural language processing features) as well as text-based sentimental prediction.

The same code is run for calculating the trigrams.

import nltk
text = “Guru99 is a totally new kind of learning experience.”
Tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(text)
output = list(nltk.trigrams(Tokens))
print(output)

Output

[('Guru99', 'is', 'totally'), ('is', 'totally', 'new'), ('totally', 'new', 'kind'), ('new', 'kind', 'of'), ('kind', 'of', 'learning'), ('of', 'learning', 'experience'), ('learning', 'experience', '.')]

 

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