Kotlin is an open-source programming language that can run on Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The language can run on numerous platforms.
It is a language that combines Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) and functional programming in an unrestricted, self - sufficient and distinctive platform.
In this tutorial, you will learn:
- What is Kotlin?
- What is Java?
- Features of Kotlin
- Features of Java
- History of Kotlin
- History of JAVA
- Difference between Kotlin and Java
- Advantage of Kotlin
- Advantages of Java
- Disadvantage of Kotlin
- Disadvantages of Java
- Which is Better?
Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric, programming language. It is among the most used programming language. It also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.
Here, are important features of Kotlin
- Offers Trimmed Coding
- Kotlin utilizes JVM, which combines the features of OOPs and functional-oriented programming.
- Offers fast compilation
- Kotlin can support a variety of extension functions without making any changes to the code
- You can write Kotlin code using IDE or using the command-line interface
- Smart feature casting helps you to cut down the application costs and improves its speed or performance.
Here are the important features of Java.
- Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
- It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
- It is a multithreaded language that allows automatic memory management.
- Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.
Here, are important landmarks from the history of Kotlin:
- In 2016, Kotlin v1.0 was launched
- In 2017, Announcement of Google on the first-class support of Kotlin in Android
- In 2018, Kotlin v1.3 version released bringing coroutines for asynchronous programming.
- In 2019, Google announced Kotlin as its preferred programming language for Android application developers
Here, are important landmarks from the history of Java language
- The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure.
- In 1995, Sun changed the name to "Java" and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning www (World Wide Web) development business.
- Later in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three key Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
Here, are differences between Kotlin and Java
|Kotlin allows users to create an extension function.||Java doesn't offer any extension functions.|
|Kotlin doesn't require too much work for data classes.||Java developers write and construct a lot of elements to develop classes|
|Kotlin doesn't offer implicit conversions.||Java supports implicit conversions.|
|There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin.||Null variable or objects are part of Java language.|
|Kotlin combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming.||Java is limited to object-oriented programming.|
|Kotlin doesn't support static members.||Java uses static members.|
|Variables of a primitive type are objects||Variables of a primitive type aren't objects|
|In Kotlin, we can have one or more secondary constructors.||In Java, we can't have secondary constructors. However, it can have multiple constructors.|
|Kotlin string template also supports expression.||Java string doesn't support expression like Kotlin.|
|It's quite easier to deploy Kotlin code.||It is hard to deploy Java code.|
|Kotlin programs don't require semicolons in their program.||Java program does need a semicolon.|
|In Kotlin, coroutine are concurrency design pattern which can be used to simplify code.||Java uses two coroutine options as 1) Rx Java and 2) Project loom.|
|Kotlin doesn't have any wildcard-types.||Wide-card is available in Java.|
|Kotlin's type of system has inbuilt null safety.||NullPonter Exception is mainly responsible for the development of Java and Android.|
|Smart cast feature is available in Kotlin.||Smart cast feature in not available in Java.|
|Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications||Java requires variable datatype specifications.|
|Kotlin supports Lambda Expression.||Java doesn't support Lambda expression.|
|Lazy-Loading feature is available in Kotlin.||This feature is not available in Java.|
|Language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts||Java does not offer language scripting capabilities.|
|It supports modern programming concepts like delegates, extension, higher-order functions.||Java supports OOPS programming concept.|
|The average salary for a java developer is $104,793 per year.||The average salary for "kotlin" ranges from approximately $107,275 per year for Software Engineer to $121,034 per year for Android Developer.|
Here, are benefits/pros of Kotlin:
- Using the Kotlin Multiplatform framework, you can extract one common codebase that will target all of them at the same time
- Kotlin offers built-in null safety support, which is a lifesaver, especially on Android, which is full of old Java-style APIs.
- It's more concise and expressive than Java, which means there is less room for error.
- Offers user-friendly and understandable coding norms
- Divides large apps into smaller layers.
- Uses lots of function types and specialized language structures like lambda expressions.
- Helps developers to create extension functions
- Offers a very simple and almost automated way of creating data classes
- Kotlin is a statically-typed language, so it is very easy to read and write.
- This language allows the exchange and use of information from Java in various ways.
- It'll take less time to write new code in Kotlin.
- It's quite easier to deploy kotlin code and to maintain it at scale.
Here, are pros/benefits of Java
- Checked exceptions that improve error detecting and solving
- Detailed documentation is available.
- A large pool of skilled developers available
- A huge array of 3rd party libraries
- It allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
- It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks simultaneously in a program.
- Excellent performance
- Easy to navigate libraries
Here, are cons/drawback of using Kotlin:
- Small community of developers, so it lacks learning materials and professional assistance.
- Java doesn't offer a function of checked exceptions that may lead to errors.
- Slower compilation speed than Java
- Kotlin, being a highly declarative language, sometimes it helps you to generate great amounts of boilerplate in corresponding JVM bytecode
Here, are cons/disadvantages of Java:
- Not very suitable for Android API design because of a number of limitations
- Demands a lot of manual work which increases the number of potential errors
- JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
- Java has high memory and processing requirements.
- It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
- You don't have any control over garbage collection as Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().
- When considering all the pitfalls of Java, especially the problem with NullPointerExceptions, Kotlin seems to be the better one among the two.
- Although Java is still an essential language for every android app development as the Android OS itself is based on the same.
- If you are looking to future proof your android app development services, then you should hire Kotlin developers for the same.
- Kotlin combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming, whereas Java is limited to object-oriented programming.
- Kotlin allows users to create an extension function while Java doesn't offer any extension functions.
- Kotlin doesn't offer implicit conversions, and Java supports implicit conversions.
- There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin on the other hand, Null variable or objects are part of Java language.
- Kotlin doesn't support static members, while Java uses static members.
- In, Kotlin variables of a primitive type are objects while in Java Variables of a primitive type aren't objects
- Kotlin supports Lambda Expression whereas Java doesn't support Lambda expression.
- Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications while Java requires variable datatype specifications.
- Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications but Java requires variable datatype specifications .
- Kotlin programs don't require semicolons in their program while Java program does need a semicolon.
- Language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts while Java does not offer language scripting capabilities.